Sonic Artefacts: "Record Collecting" in the Digital Age
Keywords:popular music, bootlegging, blogging, record collecting, fandom, copyright
AbstractThis article examines fan practices of record collecting in the digital environment. It examines two forms of fan practice that suggest a shift from the secondary involvement (Shuker 2010) of physical record collecting to a tertiary form predicated on the collection and distribution of digital music files. The first digital era practice involves the collection of unofficially released recordings of live music performances as not-for-bootlegs created and circulated by and between fans. The second involves the collection of music originally encoded in out-of-print, rare or private press vinyl and cassette releases. The fans and collectors involved in creating, distributing and/or collecting these various forms of digitized music are characterized as active and informal cultural intermediaries, who curate, organize, archive, discuss and circulate recordings and information. Their activities also raise questions about cultural memory, the provision of ‘free labour’, and the contested nature of copyright. Keywords: popular music, bootlegging, blogging, record collecting, fandom, copyright
Allen, M. 2012. The Rise and Fall of the Obscure Music Download Blog: A Roundtable. The Awl 27 November.
http://www.theawl.com/2012/11/the-rise-and-fall-of-obscure-music-blogs-a-roundtable; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Anderson, C. 2006. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion.
Anderton, C. 2006. Beating the Bootleggers: Fan Creativity, “Lossless” Audio Trading, and Commercial Opportunities. In M. D. Ayers Ed. Cybersounds: Essays on Virtual Music Culture. New York: Peter Lang: 161-184.
Anderton, C. et al. 2013. Understanding the Music Industries. London: Sage.
Atton, C. 2014. Curating Popular Music: Authority and History, Aesthetics and Technology. Popular Music 33 (3): 413-427.
Baker, S. Ed. 2015 Preserving Popular Music Heritage: Do-it-Yourself, Do-it-Together. London and New York: Routledge.
Baker, S. and Collins, J. –
Sustaining Popular Music’s Material Culture in Community Archives and Museums. International Journal of Heritage Studies 21 (10): 983-996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2015.1041414
Popular Music Heritage, Community Archives and the Challenge of Sustainability. International Journal of Cultural Studies. Published online before print on March 9, 2016.
Baker, S. and Huber, A. 2013. Notes Towards a Typology of the DIY Institution: Identifying Do-it-Yourself Places of Popular Music Preservation. European Journal of Cultural Studies 16 (5): 513-530.
Barbrook, R. 1998. The High-tech Gift Economy. First Monday 10 (special issue 3). http://firstmonday.org/article/viewArticle/1517/1432; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Baym, N. and Burnett, R. 2009. Amateur Experts: International Fan Labour in Swedish Independent Music. International Journal of Cultural Studies 12 (5): 433-449.
Bennett, A. 2009 “Heritage Rock”: Rock Music, Representation and Heritage Discourse. Poetics 37 (5/6): 474-489.
Bennett, A. and Rogers, J. 2016. Popular Music and Materiality: Memorabilia and Memory Traces. Popular Music and Society 39 (1): 28-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007766.2015.1061339
Boyle, J. 2003. The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain. Law and Contemporary Problems 66 (1/2): 33-74. http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/lcp/vol66/iss1/2; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Burkart, P. 2010. Music and Cyberliberties. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Cohen, S. et al. Eds. 2015. Sites of Popular Music Heritage: Memories, Histories, Places. London and New York: Routledge.
Condry, I. 2006. Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Paths of Cultural Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Cooper, J. and Harrison, D. M. 2001. The Social Organization of Audio Piracy on the Internet. Media, Culture and Society 23 (1): 71-89.
David, M. 2009. Peer to Peer and the Music Industry: The Criminalization of Sharing. London: Sage.
Dowd, T. J. et al. 2016. Talk of Heritage: Critical Benchmarks and DIY Preservationism in Progressive Rock. Popular Music and Society 39 (1): 97-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007766.2015.1061354
Duffett, M. 2013. Understanding Fandom: An Introduction to the Study of Media Fan Culture. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
Etree.org 2016. Live Music Archive [hosted by the Internet Archive]. https://archive.org/details/etree; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Fox, N. and Roberts, C. 1999. GPs in Cyberspace: The Sociology of a “Virtual Community”. The Sociological Review 47 (4): 643-671.
Goldstone, A. 2006. MP3 Blogs: A Silver Bullet for the Music Industry or a Smoking Gun for Copyright Infringement? Social Science Research Network.
Hardt, M. 1999. Affective Labor. Boundary 2 26 (2): 89-100. http://www.jstor.org/stable/303793; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Harvested. n.d. Harvested Records [site archived by the Internet Archive]. https://web.archive.org/web/20110903085934/http://www.harvested.org; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Heylin, C. 1995. Great White Wonders: A History of Rock Bootlegs. London: Penguin Books.
Hu, C. 2015. How Music Streaming is Creating a New Type of Superfan. Forbes.com, 10 November.
IFPI. 2015. IFPI Digital Music Report 2015: Charting the Path to Sustainable Growth. http://www.ifpi.org/downloads/Digital-Music-Report-2015.pdf
Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Jenkins, H. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.
Jetto, B. –
Music Blogs and the Music Industry: Collusion or Independence? International Journal of Music Business Research 3 (2): 60-80. https://musicbusinessresearch.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/volume-3-no-2-october-2014_jetto_end.pdf; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
The Evolution of Music Blogs: From a Fan’s Passion to a Promotional Outlet. International Journal of Music Business Research 4 (2): 49-72. https://musicbusinessresearch.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/volume-4-no-2-october-2015-beatrice-jetto.pdf; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Klein, B. et al. 2015. Understanding Copyright: Intellectual Property in the Digital Age. London: Sage.
Lazzarato, M. 1996. Immaterial Labor. In P. Virno and M. Hardt Eds. Radical Thought in Italy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press: 132-146.
Lewis, G. H. 2006. Some of These Bootleggers, They Make Pretty Good Stuff: Love and Theft from the Dylan Underground. Popular Music and Society 29 (1): 109-120.
Leyshon, A. 2003. Scary Monsters? Software Formats, Peer-to-peer Networks, and the Spectre of the Gift. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 21 (5): 533-558.
Marshall, L. –
For and Against the Record Industry: An Introduction to Bootleg Collectors and Tape Traders. Popular Music 22 (1): 57-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0261143003003040
The Effects of Piracy Upon the Music Industry: A Case Study of Bootlegging. Media, Culture and Society 26 (2): 163-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443704039497
Bootlegging: Romanticism and Copyright in the Music Industry. London: Sage.
McCourt, T. 2005. Collecting Music in the Digital Realm. Popular Music and Society 28 (2): 249-252.
McInnis, M. 2006. What’s in a Name? The Origins of the “RoIO”. Spare Bricks: The Pink Floyd Webzine 29.
http://sparebricks.fika.org/sbzine29/features.html; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Negus, K. 1992. Producing Pop: Culture and Conflict in the Popular Music Industry. London: Edward Arnold.
Neumann, M. and Simpson, T.A. 1997. Smuggled Sound: Bootleg Recording and the Pursuit of Popular Memory. Symbolic Interaction 20 (4): 319-341.
Newton, C. –
a. Spotify, Radio and the Slow Death of MP3 Blogging. Crumbler [blog] 15 March. http://crumbler.tumblr.com/post/19364729631/spotify-rdio-and-the-slow-death-of-mp3-blogging; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
b. No, the RIAA Did Not Kill Your Obscure Music Blog. Crumbler [blog], 29 November. http://crumbler.tumblr.com/post/36821590277/no-the-riaa-did-not-kill-your-obscure-music-blog; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Nieckarz, P. P. 2005. Community in Cyber Space? The Role of the Internet in Facilitating and Maintaining a Community of Live Music Collecting and Trading. City & Community 4 (4): 403-423.
Nielsen. 2014. 2014 Nielsen Music U.S. Report. http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/public%20factsheets/Soundscan/nielsen-2014-year-end-music-report-us.pdf; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Museums, Objects and Collections: A Cultural Study. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.
On Collecting: An Investigation into Collecting in the European Tradition. London and New York: Routledge.
Perpetua, M. n.d. About Fluxblog. Fluxblog [blog].
http://www.fluxblog.org/about/; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Taping Policy [updated 24 October]. http://phish.com/faq/#taping-guidelines; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Phish Summer 2016: Ticket Request Types. http://tickets.phish.com/information/; Accessed: 19 June 2016.
PRRP - Progressive Rock Remaster Project n.d. About PRRP: Mission and Structure of PRRP. http://www.prrp-music.org/about.htm; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Reynolds, S. –
Sharity Begins at Home: The Whole Album Music Blog Scene. The Wire 297 (November): 46.
Retromania: Pop Culture’s Addiction to its Own Past. London: Faber and Faber.
Rheingold, H. 2000. The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Revised edition.
Roberts, L. and Cohen, S. 2014. Unauthorising Popular Music Heritage: Outline of a Critical Framework. International Journal of Heritage Studies 20 (3): 241-261.
Rogers, J. 2008. The Lost Geniuses of Library Music. The Guardian 29 August. http://www.theguardian.com/music/2008/aug/29/electronicmusic; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Rojek, C. 2011. Pop Music, Pop Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Schwartz, D. 1995. Strange Fixation: Bootleg Sound Recordings Enjoy the Benefits of Improving Technology. Federal Communications Law Journal 47 (3), article 6. http://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/fclj/vol47/iss3/6: Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Shuker, R. –
Wax Trash and Vinyl Treasures: Record Collecting as a Social Practice. Farnham: Ashgate.
Record Collecting and Fandom. In M. Duffett Ed. Popular Music Fandom: Identities, Roles and Practices. London and New York: Routledge: 165-185.
Slater, D. 2000. Consumption Without Scarcity: Exchange and Normativity in an Internet Setting. In P. Jackson et al. Eds. Commercial Cultures: Economies, Practices, Spaces. Oxford: Berg: 123-142.
Staley, W. 2012. A Quick Thought on Obscure Music Blogs. I Don’t Know, Man [blog] 27 November.
http://willystaley.tumblr.com/post/36687654184/a-quick-thought-on-obscure-music-blogs; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Straw, W. –
a. Exhausted Commodities: The Material Culture of Music. Canadian Journal of Communication 25 (1).
http://cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/1148/1067; Accessed 1 February 2016.
b. Music as Commodity and Material Culture. Repercussions 7-8 (Spring-Fall 1999-2000): 147-172. https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~repercus/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/repercussions-Vol.-7-8-Straw-Will-Music-as-Commodity-and-Material-Culture.pdf; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Terranova, T. –
Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy. Social Text 18 (2): 33-58.
Network Culture: Politics for the Information Age. London: Pluto Press.
Toon, R. 2006. Loyalty, History, and Shades of Gray: A Personal History of Bootleg Recordings. Spare Bricks: The Pink Floyd Webzine 29. http://sparebricks.fika.org/sbzine29/features.html; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Trunk, J. 2016. The Music Library. London: FUEL. Revised and expanded edition.
Wall. T. 2013. Studying Popular Music Culture. London: Sage. Second edition.
Watson, N. 1997. Why We Argue About Virtual Community: A Case Study of the Phish.net Fan Community. In S. G. Jones Ed. Virtual Culture: Identity and Communication in Cybersociety. London: Sage: 102-132.
Wikström, P. –
The Music Industry. Cambridge: Polity.
A Typology of Music Distribution Models. International Journal of Music Business Research 1 (1): 7-20. https://musicbusinessresearch.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/ijmbr_april_2012_patrik_wikstrom1.pdf; Accessed: 1 February 2016.
Authors retain copyright, while licensing their work under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.