Sexual Violence and Gender Equality in Grassroots Music Venues: How to Facilitate Change

Rosemary Lucy Hill, Molly Megson

Abstract


Sexual violence in the music industry is known to impact negatively on women’s participation. We examine how grassroots venues and promoters can implement changes to tackle sexual violence and work towards gender equality. We draw on UK-based, impact-focused research which sought to raise awareness of sexual violence, and to facilitate anti-violence changes within organisations. We find that working across a city’s music scene and engaging with oversight organisations such as local authorities can aid in persuading venues and promoters to seek training. However, for individuals leading on changes, personal experiences of sexual violence as a victim/survivor or bystander are important factors in their decision. We conclude that men in the music industry need to become more aware of the need for change, and willing to act on that awareness; and that more women need to own, manage, and run venues and events.

Keywords


Gender; music industry; live music; music venues; prevention; sexual violence

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bibliography

Arango DJ, Morton M, Gennari F, et al. (2014) Interventions to prevent or reduce violence against women and girls: A systematic review of reviews. Women’s Voice and Agency Research Series 10: 1-61.

Bain V (2019) Counting the music industry: the gender gap. October 2019. Available at: https://countingmusic.co.uk/ Accessed 20 October 2020.

Battersby C (1989) Gender and genius: towards a feminist aesthetics. London: The Women's Press.

BBC News (2018) 'Shocking' level of sexual harassment at music festivals. BBC. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-44518892 (accessed 20 October 2020).

Bennett T (2018) "The whole feminist taking-your-clothes-off thing": negotiating the critique of gender inequality in UK music industries. IASPM Journal 8(1): 24-41.

Brooks O (2011) 'Guys! stop doing it!': young women's adoption and rejection of safety advice when socializing in bars, pubs and clubs. The British Journal of Criminology 51(4): 635-651.

Burke T (2007) The inception. Just Be Inc. Available at: http://justbeinc. wixsite.com/justbeinc/the-me-too-movement-cmml.

Burrell SR (2018) The contradictory possibilities of engaging men and boys in the prevention of men’s violence against women in the UK. Journal of Gender-Based Violence 2(3): 447–464.

Butler J (1993) Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. Farnham: Routledge.

Conor B, Gill R and Taylor S (2015) Gender and creative labour. The Sociological Review 63(S1): 1-22.

Dagens Nyheter (2017) 2192 women in the Swedish music industry behind appeal against sexism. Dagens Nyheter, 22/11/2017. Available at: https://www.dn.se/kultur-noje/2192-women-in-the-swedish-music-industry-behind-appeal-against-sexism/. Last accessed 20 October 2020

Davis R, Parks LF and Cohen L (2006) Sexual violence and the spectrum of prevention: Towards a community solution. National Sexual Violence Resource Center Enola, PA.

de Boise S (2017) Tackling gender inequalities in music: a comparative study of policy responses in the UK and Sweden. International Journal of Cultural Policy 2(4): 486-499.

DeGue S, Valle LA, Holt MK, et al. (2014) A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. Aggression and Violent Behavior 19: 346-362.

Downes J (2012) The expansion of punk rock: riot grrrl challenges to gender power relations in British indie music subcultures. Women's Studies 41(2): 204-237.

Enloe C (2017) The big push: exposing and challenging the persistence of patriarchy. Oxford: Myriad.

Evans M (2017) The persistence of gender inequality. Cambridge: Polity.

Fileborn B (2016) Reclaiming the night-time economy: unwanted sexual attention in pubs and clubs. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fileborn B, Wadds P and Barnes A (2019) Setting the stage for sexual assault: the dynamics of gender, culture, space and sexual violence at live music events. In: Strong C and Raine S (eds) Towards gender equality in the music industry: education, practice and strategies for change. London and New York: Bloomsbury.

Fileborn B, Wadds P and Tomsen S (2020) Sexual harassment and violence at Australian music festivals: Reporting practices and experiences of festival attendees Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 53(2): 194-212.

Flood M

(2019a) Engaging men and boys in violence prevention. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

(2019b) Men and #MeToo: mapping men’s responses to anti-violence advocacy. In: Fileborn B and Loney-Howes R (eds) #MeToo and the politics of social change. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.285-300.

Gavey N (2005) Just sex? : the cultural scaffolding of rape. Hove: Routledge.

Goldman JA and Harlow LL (1993) Self-Perception Variables That Mediate AIDS-Preventive Behavior in College Students. Health Psychology 12(6): 489-498.

Grossberg L (1984) Another boring day in paradise: rock and roll and the empowerment of everyday life. Popular Music 4: 225-258.

Gunby C, Carline A and Taylor S (2017) Location, libation and leisure: an examination of the use of licensed venues to help challenge sexual violence. Crime Media Culture 13(3): 315-333.

Hester M, Kelly L and Radford J (1996) Women, violence and male power. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Hill RL, Hesmondhalgh D and Megson M (2020) Sexual violence at live music events: experiences, responses and prevention. International Journal of Cultural Studies 23(3): 368–384.

Hill RL and Megson M (2020) In defence of safer spaces: punk, privilege and safer spaces policies. Punk & Post-Punk 9(1): 59–76.

Hong L (2000) Toward a transformed approach to prevention: Breaking the link between masculinity and violence. Journal of American College Health 48(6): 269-279.

Hutton F (2006) Risky pleasures? Club cultures and feminine identities. London: Routledge.

Johnston M (2016). Kesha and Dr. Luke: everything you need to know to understand the case Rolling Stone, 22 February. Available at: https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-news/kesha-and-dr-luke-everything-you-need-to-know-to-understand-the-case-106731/. Accessed 20 October 2020.

Katz J (2006) Macho Paradox: Why some men hurt women and and how all men can help. Sourcebooks, Inc.

Kelly L (1988) Surviving sexual violence. Cambridge: Polity

Kemmis S, McTaggart R and Nixon R (2014) The action research planner: doing critical participatory action research. Singapore: Springer.

Latané B and Darley JM (1970) The unresponsive bystander: why doesn't he help? Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Leonard M (2016) Girls at work: gendered identities, sex segregation and employment experiences in the music industries. In: Warwick J and Adrian A (eds) Voicing Girlhood in Popular Music: Performance, Authority, Authenticity. New York: Routledge, pp.37-55.

Lubet A (2011) Music, disability, and society. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Mackenzie J (2017) Rape and abuse: The music industry's dark side exposed. BBC. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-42368544 (accessed 16/10/2020).

Madden E (2019) I was sexually assaulted at Reading Festival in 2010: Has anything changed since? The Telegraph, 22/08/2019. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/music/news/sexually-assaulted-reading-festival-2010-has-anything-changed/ Accessed 20 October 2020.

Michau LMA, Horn JM, Bank ABA, et al. (2015) Prevention of violence against women and girls: lessons from practice. Lancet, The 385(9978): 1672-1684.

Moskovitch G (2015) Victoria sets up taskforce to tackle harassment of women at gigs. Tone deaf. Available at: https://tonedeaf.thebrag.com/victoria-sets-up-taskforce-to-tackle-harassment-of-women-at-gigs/ (accessed 20 Oct 2020).

Musicians' Union (2019) Preventing sexual harassment at work, protecting freelancers too. Musicians' Union. Available at: https://www.musiciansunion.org.uk/Home/News/2019/Oct/Preventing-Sexual-Harassment-at-Work-Protecting-Fr (accessed 20 Oct 2020).

Musicians' Union (n.d.) MU safe space scheme. Available at: https://www.musiciansunion.org.uk/safespace (accessed 17/08/2020).

O'Connor R (2017) Architects singer Sam Carter calls out man 'who grabbed fan's breast while she was crowdsurfing'. The Independent, 19 August. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/architects-gig-sam-carter-crowdsurfer-video-lowlands-festival-sexual-assault-grope-latest-a7901606.html Accessed 20 October 2020.

Pearce R and Lohmann K (2019) De/constructing DIY identities in a trans music scene. Sexualities 22(1-2): 97-113.

Pease B (2014) Theorising men's violence prevention policies: limitations and possibilities of interventions in a patriarchal state. In: Henry N and Powell A (eds) Preventing sexual violence: interdisciplinary approaches to overcoming a rape culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.22-44.

Pike M and Bones F (2001/2015) The raver’s manifesto. Available at: https://frankiebones.tumblr.com/post/124796352418/the-ravers-manifesto/amp (accessed 19/08/2020).

Platt L and Finkel R (2020) Gendered violence at international festivals: An interdisciplinary perspective. Abingdon: Routledge.

Potter S (2019) Making spaces safer: a guide to giving harassment the boot wherever you work, play, and gather. Chico, CA and Edinbugh: AK Press.

Powell A and Henry N (2014) Framing sexual violence prevention: what does it mean to challenge a rape culture? In: Henry N and Powell A (eds) Preventing sexual violence: interdisciplinary approaches to overcoming a rape culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.1-21.

Sharp M and Nilan P (2017) Floorgasm: Queer(s), solidarity and resilience in punk. Emotion, Space and Society 25: 71-78.

Strong C and Raine S (2018) Gender politics in the music industry. IASPM Journal 8(1): 2-8.

Timonen S (2018) Sexual misconduct in the music industry: then and and now. Paper at the IASPM UK and Ireland Biennial Conference Crosstown Traffic: Popular Music Theory and Practice, Huddersfield, UK. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Rr7NLTbuQA Accessed 20 October 2020.

Vera-Gray F (2017) Men's intrusion, women's embodiment: a critical analysis of street harassment. Abingdon: Routledge.

Walby S (1990) Theorizing patriarchy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Webster E, Brennan M, Behr A, et al. (2018) Valuing live music: the UK live music census 2017 report. Available at: http://uklivemusiccensus.org/ (accessed 17/08/2020).

Woodward K (2004) Questioning identity: gender, class, ethnicity. London: Routledge.

Web Sources

Good Night Out Campaign (2020) About Us. Available at: http://www.goodnightoutcampaign.org/about/ (Accessed 30/01/2020).

Girls Against Gig Groping (2020) Girls Against Available at: https://www.facebook.com/girlsagainstgroping/ (accessed 14/08/2020).

Safe Gigs For Women (2017) Safe Gigs For Women. Available at: https://sgfw.org.uk/ (accessed 14/08/2020).

White Ribbon Campaign UK (n.d.) What we do. Available at: https://www.whiteribbon.org.uk/what-we-do (accessed 07/02/2020).




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.